This information in this article is obtained from Wikipedia sources.
State-recognized tribes are Native American Nations, and Heritage Groups that have been recognized by a process established under assorted state laws for varying purposes. With increasing activism by tribal nations since the mid-20th century to obtain United State government recognition of their tribal sovereignty, many states have passed legislation to recognize some tribes and acknowledge the self-determination and continuity of historic ethnic groups. The majority of these groups are located in the eastern part of the Turtle Island (United States of America).
There are three large state-recognized tribes in the United States which include the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, the Miami Nation of Indiana and the United Houma Nation of Louisiana, each of which has several thousand tribal members. In many cases, these tribes do not or did not have land within an Indian reservation or did not hold communal land. Some states have established commissions or other administrative bodies to deal with Native American affairs within the state. This process has resulted in the increasing of native self-determination and preservation of cultural identity for many of the First Nations’ communities.
State recognition gives limited benefits under federal law. It is not the same as federal recognition, which is the federal government’s acknowledgment of a tribe as an independent Sovereign Nation and recognizes the right of these tribes to self-government and supports their tribal sovereignty and self-determination. They may form their own government, enforce laws (both civil and criminal), tax, license and regulate activities, zone, and exclude people from tribal territories. Although the United States provides some autonomy for federally recognized tribes there are limitations on tribal powers of self-government as is applicable to U.S. states. Neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or provide their own determined money.
Unrecognized tribes in the United States are organizations of people who claim to be historically, culturally, and/or genetically related to historic Native American Indian tribes but who are:
1. not officially recognized as Indigenous Nations by the United States federal government or,
2. Not officially recognized as Indigenous Nations under the United States individual states and their separate legislative processes, or
3. Not formally recognized other Indigenous Nations.
List of state-recognized tribes
By 2008 a total of 62 Native American tribes had been recognized by states but not by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Tribes originally recognized by states that have since gained federal recognition have been deleted from the list below. The list identifies those state-recognized tribes that have petitioned for federal recognition and been denied. Many continue to work to gain such recognition.
By the Davis-Strong Act of 1984, the state established the Alabama Indian Affairs Commission to acknowledge and represent Native American citizens in the state. At that time, it recognized seven tribes that did not have federal recognition. The commission members, representatives of the tribes, have created rules for tribal recognition, which were last updated in 2003, under which three more tribes have been recognized.
- Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
- Cherokee Tribe of Northeast Alabama (formerly Cherokees of Jackson County, Alabama) Letter of Intent to Petition 09/23/1981; certified letter returned “not known” 11/19/1997.
- Cherokees of Southeast Alabama Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1988; certified letter returned marked “deceased” 11/5/1997.
- Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama
- Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983. Declined to Acknowledge 08/18/1988 52 FR 34319, Denied federal recognition
- MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians Letter of Intent to Petition 05/27/1983. Final Determination to Decline to Acknowledge published 12/24/1997 62FR247:67398-67400; petitioner requested reconsideration from BIA 3/23/1998, denied federal recognition; decision effective 11/26/1999.
- Piqua Shawnee Tribe
- Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks (formerly Lower Creek Muscogee Tribe East, Star Clan, Southeastern Mvskoke Nation, and Yufala Star Clan of Lower Muscogee Creeks)
- United Cherokee Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation (formerly United Cherokee Intertribal). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/08/2001.
There are also about 45 tribal communities of formerly recognized tribes that were terminated as part of the United States’ termination policy in the 1950s or tribal communities that were never recognized by the federal government.
- Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation.
- Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/28/1978; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.
- Paucatuck Eastern Pequot Indians of Connecticut. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/20/1989. Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60099.
- Golden Hill Paugussett. Final Determination Against Federal Acknowledgement of the Golden Hill Paugussett Tribe (2004)
- Schaghticoke Tribal Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 9/27/2001. Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/1981; Declined to acknowledge in 2002; Reconsidered final determination not to acknowledge became final and effective 10/14/2005 70 FR 60101. Also known as the Schaghticoke Indian Tribe.
- Lenape Indian Tribe of Delaware
- Nanticoke Indian Association, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 08/08/1978; requested petition be placed on hold 3/25/1989 of limited applicability
In 2007, the state legislature formally recognized as American Indian tribes of Georgia the following:
- Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council.
- Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees (I). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/09/1979; last submission February 2002; ready for Acknowledge review.
Unrecognized tribes with the same name as Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc. (II) and (III) exist.
- Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe Letter of Intent to Petition 02/02/1972; Declined to Acknowledge 12/21/1981 (46 FR 51652). Denied federal recognition Also known as Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Inc.
- Addai Caddo Tribe. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1993. Letter of Intent to Petition 09/13/1993. Also known as Adais Caddo Indians, Inc.
- Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 10/24/1995. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2005.
- Choctaw-Apache Tribe of Ebarb Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/02/1978.
- Clifton-Choctaw Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1978. Letter of Intent to Petition 03/22/1978. Also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.
- Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1997.
- Grand Caillou/Dulac Band
- Isle de Jean Charles Band
- Louisiana Choctaw Tribe.
- Pointe-au-Chien Tribe. Separated from United Houma Nation, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 7/22/1996. Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2004.
- United Houma Nation Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 1972. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/10/1979; Proposed Finding 12/22/1994, 59 FR 6618. Denied federal recognition
- Natchitoches Tribe of Louisiana, Recognized by the State of Louisiana in 2017 Regular Session, HR227.
On January 9, 2012, for the first time the state recognized two American Indian tribes under a process developed by the General Assembly; these were both Piscataway groups, historically part of the large Algonquian languages family along the Atlantic Coast. The Governor announced it to the Assembly by executive order.
- Piscataway Conoy Tribe. It includes the following two sub-groups:
- Piscataway Conoy Confederacy and Sub-Tribes.
- Cedarville Band of Piscataway Indians.
- Piscatway Indian Nation.
The Massachusetts Commission on Indian Affairs was created by a legislative act of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1974, with the purpose of helping tribes recognized or that will be recognized receive access to and assistance with various local and state agencies. Two former state-recognized tribes, the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head and the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, have federal recognition as of 1987 and 2007, respectively.
- Praying Indians of Natick (Massachusett-Nipmuc)
- Massachusett-Ponkapoag Tribal Council
- Nipmuc Nation (Hassanamisco Nipmuc and some Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck). Letter of Intent to Petition 04/22/1980; Proposed finding in progress. Declined to acknowledge on 6/25/2004, 69 FR 35667; Reconsideration request before IBIA (not yet effective)
- Webster/Dudley Band of the Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck (Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck)
- Wampanoag (Wôpanaak)
- Assonet Wampanoag Tribe.
- Chappaquiddick Wampanoag Tribe.
- Herring Pond Wampanoag Tribe
- Pocasset Tribe of the Pokanoket Nation.
- Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe
As of 2014, Michigan has four State-recognized tribes.
- Burt Lake Band of Ottawa & Chippewa Indians.
- Grand River Band of Ottawa Indians.
- Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians.
- Swan Creek Black River Confederated Ojibwa Tribes of Michigan.
- Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians. Letter of Intent to Petition 4/28/1978; Proposed Finding 7/21/2000.
- Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Tribal Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/03/1992.
- Ramapough Lenape Nation.
- Powhatan Renape Nation.
- Tonawanda Band of Seneca (Also federally recognized)
- Tuscarora Nation. (Also federally recognized)
- Unkechague Poosepatuck Tribe. (Unkechaug Nation)
- Coharie Intra-tribal Council, Inc. Letter of Intent to Petition 3/13/1981.
- Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 1/27/1979. Notified of “obvious deficiencies” in federal recognition application
- Lumbee Tribe (Lumbee Regional Development Association Inc., Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina). Letter of Intent to Petition 01/07/1980; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989). In 2009, Senate Indian Affairs Committee endorsed a bill that would grant federal recognition.
- Meherrin Nation. State-recognized 1987.
- Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/06/1995.
- Sappony](formerly known as Indians of Person County, North Carolina).
- Waccamaw-Siouan Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/27/1983; determined ineligible to petition (SOL opinion of 10/23/1989). Letter of Intent to Petition 10/16/1992; determined eligible to petition (SOL letter of 6/29/1995). Also known as Waccamaw Siouan Development Association.
South Carolina recognizes three types of Native American entities; tribes, groups and special interest organizations. As of 2019[update] the state recognizes nine Native American tribes that are not recognized by the federal government.
- Beaver Creek Indians. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/26/1998. State-recognized tribe in 2006.
- Edisto Natchez Kusso Tribe of South Carolina, state-recognized tribe in 2010. Also known as Edisto Natchez-Kusso Indians (Four Holes Indian Organization)
- Pee Dee Nation of Upper South Carolina. Letter of Intent to Petition 12/14/2005. State-recognized tribe in 2005.
- Pee Dee Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 01/30/1995. State recognized in 2006. Formerly Pee Dee Indian Tribe of South Carolina (2005). Formerly Pee Dee Indian Association (1978). Formerly, Pee Dee Lumbee Indian Association (1976).
- Piedmont American Indian Association.
- The Santee Indian Organization. Letter of Intent to Petition 06/04/1979. State-recognized tribe in 2006. Formerly White Oak Indian Community.
- Sumter Tribe of Cheraw Indians.
- The Waccamaw Indian People.
- Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians.
In Texas, there are three Tribes that are recognized by both Federal and Texas governments. Texas recognizes two additional Tribes:
- Lipan Apache Tribe. On March 18, 2009, the State of Texas legislature passed joint resolutions HR 812 and SR 438 recognizing the Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas. Then ten years later, on May 25, 2019, and June 4, 2019, Texas Governor Gregg Abbott, respectively, signed companion bills adopted by State of Texas legislature, House Concurrent Resolution HCR 171 and Senate Concurrent Resolution SCR 61 that once again recognized the Lipan Apache Tribe. Also known as Lipan Apache Tribe of Texas.
- Mount Tabor Indian Community On April 5, 2017 the Senate of the State of Texas state of Texas legislature passed resolutions 85 SCR 25 with the House passing the bill on April 27, 2017, Governor Greg Abbott signed the bill into law on May 10, 2017 recognizing the Mount Tabor Indian Community of Texas. Also known as Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands-Mount Tabor Indian Community.
As of May 3, 2006, Vermont law 1 V.S.A §§ 851–853 recognizes Abenakis as Native American Indians, not the tribes or bands. However, on April 22, 2011, Vermont Governor Peter Shumlin signed legislative bills officially recognizing two Abenaki Bands. The four Abenaki state-recognized tribes are also known as the “Abenaki Alliance.”
- Elnu Abenaki Tribe; recognition signed into statute April 22, 2011.
- Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation; recognition signed into statute April 22, 2011.
On May 7, 2012 Governor Shumlim signed legislative bills officially recognizing two more Abenaki Bands:
- Koasek Abenaki Tribe. Also known as Traditional Koasek Abenaki Nation of the Koas
- Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe. Also known as Missisquoi St Francis Sokoki Abenaki Nations.
- Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Letter of Intent to Petition 12/30/2002. Receipt of Petition 12/30/2002. State-recognized 2010; in Courtland, Southampton County. Letter of intent to file for federal recognition 2017. Currently a bill is being sponsored.
- Mattaponi (a.k.a. Mattaponi Indian Reservation) Letter of Intent to Petition 04/04/1995. State-recognized 1983; in Banks of the Mattaponi River, King William County. The Mattaponi and Pamunkey have reservations based in colonial-era treaties ratified by the Commonwealth in 1658. Pamunkey Tribe’s attorney told Congress in 1991 that the tribes state reservation originated in a treaty with the crown in the 17th century and has been occupied by Pamunkey since that time under strict requirements and following the treaty obligation to provide to the Crown a deer every year, and they’ve done that (replacing Crown with Governor of Commonwealth since Virginia became a Commonwealth)
- Patawomeck recognized 2010; in Stafford County.
- Chinook Indian Tribe. Letter of Intent to Petition 07/23/1979; Declined to acknowledge 07/12/2003 (67 FR 46204). Also known as Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon & Washington, Inc. and Chinook Nation.